Wto Agreement On Quotas

The US-EU project refers to tariff quotas in two contexts: the granting of market access to products subject to reduced formulas under the Uruguay Round; and for those who end up with rates above a maximum. The G-20 draft stipulates that quotas in industrialized countries should be increased by a percentage of domestic consumption and that in-quota tariffs should be abolished, with further expansion through negotiations. Developing countries would not have to make commitments (also proposed by the four Central Americans and Kenya). Japan, Norway and the East Asian Group reject any commitment to extend tariff rate quotas. The African Union/ACP/Least Developed Countries Cancún document calls for simplified and more transparent management of quotas for the benefit of developing countries. The agreement provided for special treatment for certain categories of countries, e.B new entrants, small suppliers and least developed countries. Today, among WTO members, agricultural products are protected only by tariffs.1 All non-tariff barriers to trade had to be removed or converted into tariffs as a result of the Uruguay Round (the conversion was called the „tariff tariff“). In some cases, the equivalent tariffs calculated – such as the initial measures imposed on tariffs – were too high to allow a real opportunity for imports. As a result, a TRQ system was created to maintain existing import access levels and provide minimum access. This means lower tariffs within quotas and higher rates for quantities outside quotas. The discussion on tariffs covers both in-quota and in-quota quantities. Traditionally, tariff reductions resulting from trade negotiations have come from bilateral product-by-product negotiations, or they have been based on formulas that apply to a wide range of products or combinations of both.

There is unanimity on how the cuts will be managed in the current negotiations. Some countries – such as Canada and the United States – argue that „sectoral liberalization“ should also be negotiated. In some areas of previous negotiations, this sometimes meant „zero for zero“ agreements. These include negotiations on the complete elimination of tariffs (and possibly other measures such as export subsidies or subsidized export credits) by at least the main WTO Members in certain sectors such as oilseeds, barley and malt. Some countries – Japan, for example – have said they are not in favour. Members with tariff quotas and the right to exercise special guarantees must make ad hoc and annual communications to the Committee on Agriculture. At the beginning of the implementation period, prior notification was to be made of how each TRQ would be managed. Such notifications shall reveal, for example, whether imports are authorised after the first change of licence or whether import licences are used and, in the latter case, an indication of the persons who may obtain a licence and the manner in which they are allocated. An ad hoc announcement is required if the allocation method changes under a tariff rate quota. .